Aging is associated with neurological impairment and cognitive decline. Flavonoids are very promising in anti-aging research in mouse models. Ribes meyeri anthocyanins are rich in abundant flavonoids, but their anti-aging biological activities remain unknown. In this study, we prepared an R. meyeri anthocyanin extract and analyzed its effects on neural stem cell (NSC) senescence in vivo and in vitro. We isolated mouse NSCs and used cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), cell cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and immunofluorescence methods to analyze the anti-aging effects of R. meyeri anthocyanins as well as naringenin (Nar), which metabolic analysis revealed as an important flavonoid in R. meyeri anthocyanins. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) methods were also used to investigate Nar-specific mechanisms of anti-aging. After R. meyeri anthocyanin treatment, NSC proliferation accelerated, and NSCs had decreased senescence markers, and reduced P16ink4a expression. R. meyeri anthocyanin treatment also reversed age-dependent neuronal loss in vivo and in vitro. Nar blocked mNSC aging in vitro and improved spatial memory and cognitive abilities in aging mice through downregulation of plasma TNF-α protein. These findings suggest that R. meyeri anthocyanins increase NSC proliferation and improve neurogenesis with aging via Nar-induced reductions in TNF-α protein levels in vivo.