The Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays vital roles in diverse biological processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, migration, and insulin sensitivity. A recent study reported that the DNA-binding transcriptional factor SIX3 is essential during embryonic development in vertebrates and capable of downregulating target genes of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in lung cancer, indicating negative regulation of Wnt/β-catenin activation. However, regulation of the SIX3-Wnt/β-catenin pathway axis remains unknown. We measured the expression of TRIM27 and SIX3 as well as investigated whether there was a correlation between them in lung cancer tissue samples. Herein, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase, TRIM27, ubiquitinates, and degrades SIX3. TRIM27 induces non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell proliferation and metastasis, and the expression of β-catenin, S100P, TGFB3, and MMP-9 were significantly inhibited by SIX3. Furthermore, XAV939 is a selective β-catenin-mediated transcription inhibitor that inhibited TRIM27- and SIX3-mediated NSCLC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Clinically, lung tissue samples of cancer patients showed increased TRIM27 expression and decreased SIX3 expression. Taken together, these data demonstrate that TRIM27 acts as an oncogene regulating cell proliferation and metastasis in NSCLC through SIX3-β-catenin signaling.