Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 24 pp 25581—25598
A dual inhibitor targeting HMG-CoA reductase and histone deacetylase mitigates neurite degeneration in LRRK2-G2019S parkinsonism
- 1 Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan
- 2 Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
- 3 Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan
Received: April 21, 2020 Accepted: August 27, 2020 Published: November 24, 2020https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.104165
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2020 Lin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is among the most common neurodegenerative disorders, and its etiology involves both genetic and environmental factors. The leucine-rich repeat kinase (LRRK2) G2019S mutation is the most common genetic cause of familial and sporadic PD. Current treatment is limited to dopaminergic supplementation, as no disease-modifying therapy is available yet. Recent evidence reveals that HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibitors (statins) exert neuroprotection through anti-neuroinflammatory effects, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors mitigate neurodegeneration by promoting the transcription of neuronal survival factors. We designed and synthesized a dual inhibitor, statin hydroxamate JMF3086, that simultaneously inhibits HMGR and HDAC, and examined its neuroprotective effects on LRRK2-G2019S parkinsonism. JMF3086 restored dopaminergic neuron loss in aged LRRK2-G2019S flies and rescued neurite degeneration in primary hippocampal and dopaminergic neurons isolated from transgenic LRRK2-G2019S mice. The molecular mechanisms included downregulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, increased anti-apoptotic Akt phosphorylation, and inhibition of GSK3β activity to maintain cytoskeletal stability in stably transfected LRRK2-G2019S SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic cells. JMF3086 also promoted a-tubulin acetylation and kinesin-1 expression, facilitating antegrade mitochondrial transport in axons. Our findings demonstrate that JMF3086 exerted beneficial effects on restoring LRRK2-G2019S neurite degeneration by maintaining microtubule stability. This dual-target compound may be a promising mechanism-based therapy for PD.