Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 24 pp 25581—25598
A dual inhibitor targeting HMG-CoA reductase and histone deacetylase mitigates neurite degeneration in LRRK2-G2019S parkinsonism
- 1 Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan
- 2 Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
- 3 Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan
Received: April 21, 2020 Accepted: August 27, 2020 Published: November 24, 2020https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.104165
How to Cite
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is among the most common neurodegenerative disorders, and its etiology involves both genetic and environmental factors. The leucine-rich repeat kinase (LRRK2) G2019S mutation is the most common genetic cause of familial and sporadic PD. Current treatment is limited to dopaminergic supplementation, as no disease-modifying therapy is available yet. Recent evidence reveals that HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibitors (statins) exert neuroprotection through anti-neuroinflammatory effects, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors mitigate neurodegeneration by promoting the transcription of neuronal survival factors. We designed and synthesized a dual inhibitor, statin hydroxamate JMF3086, that simultaneously inhibits HMGR and HDAC, and examined its neuroprotective effects on LRRK2-G2019S parkinsonism. JMF3086 restored dopaminergic neuron loss in aged LRRK2-G2019S flies and rescued neurite degeneration in primary hippocampal and dopaminergic neurons isolated from transgenic LRRK2-G2019S mice. The molecular mechanisms included downregulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, increased anti-apoptotic Akt phosphorylation, and inhibition of GSK3β activity to maintain cytoskeletal stability in stably transfected LRRK2-G2019S SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic cells. JMF3086 also promoted a-tubulin acetylation and kinesin-1 expression, facilitating antegrade mitochondrial transport in axons. Our findings demonstrate that JMF3086 exerted beneficial effects on restoring LRRK2-G2019S neurite degeneration by maintaining microtubule stability. This dual-target compound may be a promising mechanism-based therapy for PD.