Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 1 pp 846—864

Longitudinal profiling of the blood transcriptome in an African green monkey aging model

Ja-Rang Lee1, *, , Se-Hee Choe2,3, *, , Young-Hyun Kim2, *, , Hyeon-Mu Cho2,3, , Hye-Ri Park2,3, , Hee-Eun Lee2, , Yeung Bae Jin2, , Ji-Su Kim1, , Kang Jin Jeong2, , Sang-Je Park2, , Jae-Won Huh2,3, ,

  • 1 Primate Resource Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 56216, Republic of Korea
  • 2 National Primate Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Cheongju 28116, Republic of Korea
  • 3 Department of Functional Genomics, KRIBB School of Bioscience, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 34113, Republic of Korea
* Equal contribution

Received: June 24, 2020       Accepted: October 22, 2020       Published: December 3, 2020
How to Cite

Copyright: © 2020 Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


African green monkeys (AGMs, Chlorocebus aethiops) are Old World monkeys which are used as experimental models in biomedical research. Recent technological advances in next generation sequencing are useful for unraveling the genetic mechanisms underlying senescence, aging, and age-related disease. To elucidate the normal aging mechanisms in older age, the blood transcriptomes of nine healthy, aged AGMs (15‒23 years old), were analyzed over two years. We identified 910‒1399 accumulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each individual, which increased with age. Aging-related DEGs were sorted across the three time points. A major proportion of the aging-related DEGs belonged to gene ontology (GO) categories involved in translation and rRNA metabolic processes. Next, we sorted common aging-related DEGs across three time points over two years. Common aging-related DEGs belonged to GO categories involved in translation, cellular component biogenesis, rRNA metabolic processes, cellular component organization, biogenesis, and RNA metabolic processes. Furthermore, we identified 29 candidate aging genes that were upregulated across the time series analysis. These candidate aging genes were linked to protein synthesis. This study describes a changing gene expression pattern in AGMs during aging using longitudinal transcriptome sequencing. The candidate aging genes identified here may be potential targets for the treatment of aging.


AGM: African green monkey; DEGs: differentially expressed genes; GO: gene ontology; NHPs: non-human primates; FPKM: fragments per kb per million fragments; PANTHER: Protein Analysis through Evolutionary Relationships; TP: time point; KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes; OWMs: Old World monkeys; SPF: specific pathogen free; BV: herpes B virus; STLV-1: simian T-cell lymphotropic/leukemia virus; SIV: simian immunodeficiency virus; SRV: simian retrovirus; SV40: simian virus 40; RIN: RNA integrity number; FDR: false discovery rate; log2FC: log2-fold change; DAVID: Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery.