To identify the association between metabolites and muscle mass in 305 elderly Taiwanese subjects, we conducted a multivariate analysis of 153 plasma samples. Based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) quartiles, female and male participants were divided into four groups. Quartile 4 (Men: 5.67±0.35, Women: 4.70±0.32 Kg/m2) and quartile 1 (Men: 7.60±0.29, Women: 6.56±0.53 Kg/m2) represented low muscle mass and control groups, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, except for physical function, we found that blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and age were associated with ASMI in men. However, only triglyceride level was related to ASMI in women. The multiple logistic regression models were used to analyze in each baseline characteristic and metabolite concentration. After the adjustment, we identify amino acid-related metabolites and show that glutamate levels in women and alpha-aminoadipate, Dopa, and citrulline/ornithine levels in men are gender-specific metabolic signatures of muscle mass loss.