Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 1 pp 1132—1152
Ginsenoside RG1 enhances the paracrine effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on radiation induced intestinal injury
- 1 Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong, P.R. China
- 2 The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, Guangdong, P.R. China
- 3 Department of Gastroenterology, Guangdong Provincial People’s Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong, P.R. China
- 4 Department of Oncology, Cancer Center, Guangdong Provincial People’s Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong, P.R. China
- 5 Department of Gastroenterology, Shantou Central Hospital, Affiliated Shantou Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Shantou 515041, Guangdong, P.R. China
- 6 Department of Cardiology, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial People’s Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong, P.R. China
Received: June 15, 2020 Accepted: October 20, 2020 Published: December 3, 2020https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.202241
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2020 Luo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Content and aims: Ginsenoside RG1 (RG1) is thought to enhance proliferation and differentiation of stem cell, however, its role on paracrine efficacy of stem cell remains unclear. Here we examined if and how RG1 enhances the paracrine effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on radiation induced intestinal injury (RIII).
Method: Irradiated rats randomly received intraperitoneal injection of conditioned medium (CM) derived from non-activated BM-MSCs (MSC-CM) or BM-MSCs pre-activated by RG-1 (RG1-MSC-CM). Intestinal samples were collected, followed by the evaluation of histological and functional change, apoptosis, proliferation, inflammation, angiogenesis and stem cell regeneration. The effects of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were investigated using HO-1 inhibitor or siRNA.
Result: RG1 enhanced the paracrine efficacy of BM-MSCs partially through upregulation of HO-1. RG1-MSC-CM rather than MSC-CM significantly improved the survival and intestinal damage of irradiated rats via improvement of intestinal proliferation/apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and stem cell regeneration in a HO-1 dependent mechanism. The mechanism for the superior paracrine efficacy of RG1-MSC-CM is related to a higher release of two pivotal cytokines VEGF and IL-6.
Conclusion: Our study revealed that RG1 enhances paracrine effects of BM-MSCs on RIII, providing a novel method for maximizing the paracrine potential of MSCs.
CM: conditioned medium; BM-MSCs: bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells; RG1: ginsenoside RG1; RIII: radiation induced intestinal injury; CM derived from non-activated BM-MSCs (MSC-CM), BM-MSCs pre-activated by RG-1 (RG1-MSC-CM); HO-1: heme oxygenase-1; MSCs: mesenchymal stem cells; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor; ASCs: adipose-derived stromal cells; DMEM-F12: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Media; Nutrient Mixture F-12, FBS: fetal bovine serum; Zn-PP: Zn-protoporphyrin; IL-6: interleukin 6; IL-10: interleukin-10; OD: Optical Density; H&E staining: hematoxylin-eosin staining; TUNEL: transferase dUTP nick-end labeling; PI: propidium iodide; bFGF: basic fibroblast growth factor; HGF: hepatocyte growth factor; TGF-β1: transforming growth factor-β; VCAM-1: Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; IL-1β: interleukin-1β; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha; RIPA: radioimmunoprecipitation; MLNs: mesenteric lymph nodes; IGF-1: insulin-like growth factors-1.