Oxidative stress induces damages of various cell types or tissues through a repetitive imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and detoxification of the reactive intermediates. Thioacetamide (TAA) is well known for causing several degenerative diseases by oxidative stress. However, study of the antioxidant mechanisms of stem cells in TAA-injured rat model is insufficient. Therefore, we investigated the effect of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs) transplantation on liver and ovary of TAA-injured rat models to study the antioxidant effect in degenerative diseases. In TAA-injured rat model, PD-MSCs engrafted into damaged organ including liver and ovary in PD-MSCs transplanted groups (Tx) compared with non-transplanted groups (NTx) (*p<0.05). Transplanted PD-MSCs reduced inflammatory factors and upregulated oxidative stress factors in Tx compared with NTx (*p<0.05). Also, transplanted PD-MSCs enhanced antioxidants factors and organ functional restoration factors in Tx compared with NTx. These data show that PD-MSC transplantation triggers the regeneration of organ (e.g., liver and ovary) damaged by oxidative stress from TAA treatment via activating antioxidant factors. Therefore, these data suggest the therapeutic potential via antioxidant effect and help understand the therapeutic mechanism of PD-MSCs in damaged tissues such as in liver and reproductive system.