MicroRNA-205 (miR-205) is believed to be related to the progress of tumors. HOXD9 has been proved to be expressed abnormally in several kinds of cancers. However, the role of miR-205 and HOXD9 in breast cancer remains unclear. The biological role of miR-205 in breast cancer cell proliferation and chemoresistance was investigated. The expression of miR-205 in clinical tissues and breast cancer cell lines were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR test (qRT-PCR). Overexpression and knockdown models of miR-205 were established to study cell proliferation and chemotherapy-resistant. Moreover, the potential relationships between miR-205 and HOXD9/Snail1 were measured using qRT-PCR, western blot, and chemotherapy-resistant study. miR-205 was lowly expressed in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-205 could inhibit cell proliferation and chemotherapy-resistance. Moreover, we proved that miR-205 could target the HOXD9-Snail1 axis to suppress triple negative breast cancer cell proliferation and chemoresistance. The activation of Snail1 gene by HOXD9 was also proved in this study. The present study may provide a novel insight for the therapeutic strategies of breast cancer through targeting miR-205/HOXD9/Snail1.