Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 3 pp 4388—4408

Lumican inhibits immune escape and carcinogenic pathways in colorectal adenocarcinoma

Yiqing Zang1, , Qiuping Dong2, , Yi Lu1, , Kaiti Dong1, , Rong Wang3, , Zheng Liang1, ,

  • 1 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, China
  • 2 Department of Cancer Cell Biology, Tianjin’s Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin 300060, China
  • 3 Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300060, China

Received: June 3, 2020       Accepted: November 23, 2020       Published: January 20, 2021
How to Cite

Copyright: © 2021 Zang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Lumican (LUM), a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, is a component of the extracellular matrix. Abnormal LUM expression is potentially associated with cancer progression. In the present study, we confirmed high LUM mRNA expression in colorectal adenocarcinoma (COAD) through the UALCAN database. The Kaplan-Meier method, univariate, and multivariate COX analysis showed that high LUM expression is an independent determinant of poor prognosis in COAD. A COX regression model was constructed based on clinical information and LUM expression. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicated that this model was highly accurate in monitoring COAD prognosis. The co-expression network of LUM was determined by LinkedOmics, which showed that LUM expression was closely related to immune escape and the miR200 family. Furthermore, we studied the co-expression network of LUM and found that LUM could promote tumor metastasis and invasion. The Tumor Immune Estimation Resource website showed that LUM was closely related to immune infiltration and correlated with regulatory T cells, tumour-associated macrophages, and dendritic cells. We found that LUM cultivated cancer progression by targeting the miR200 family to promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. These findings suggest that LUM is a potential target for inhibiting immune escape and carcinogenic pathways.


AUC: area under the ROC curve; COAD: colon adenocarcinoma; CRC: colorectal cancer; CSF1R: Colony Stimulating Factor 1 Receptor; DC: dendritic cells; DSS: disease-specific survival; ECM: extracellular matrix; EMT: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; GO: Gene Ontology; HR: hazard ratio; ILK: Integrin Linked Kinase; KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes; KM: Kaplan-Meier; KRAS: KRAS Proto-Oncogene; LUM: Lumican; OS: overall survival; RASSF2: Ras Association Domain Family Member 2; ROC: receiver operating characteristic; SLRP: small leucine-rich proteoglycan; SPSS: Statistical Product and Service Solutions; TAM: tumor-associated macrophage; Treg: regulatory T cells; ZEB: Zinc Finger E-Box Binding Homeobox.