COVID-19 Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 1 pp 27—60
Mortality risk of COVID-19 in elderly males with comorbidities: a multi-country study
- 1 Institute of Hepatology and Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China
- 2 Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, China
- 3 School of Mathematics and Statistics, Central South University, Changsha, China
- 4 The First Hospital of Changsha, Changsha, China
- 5 The Fourth Hospital of Changsha, Changsha, China
- 6 Department of Endocrinology, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China
- 7 Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
- 8 Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
- 9 Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK
- 10 Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Received: July 30, 2020 Accepted: December 9, 2020 Published: December 31, 2020https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.202456
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2020 Wen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The COVID-19 pandemic causes severe morbidity and mortality. This multi-country study aimed to explore risk factors that drive mortality in COVID-19 patients who received neither dexamethasone nor remdesivir. We analyzed a cohort of 568 survivors and 507 non-survivors from China, European regions, and North America. Elderly males ≥70 years accounted for only 25% of survivors, but this rate was significantly higher in non-survivors from China (55%), European regions (63%), and North America (47%). Compared with survivors, non-survivors had more incidences of comorbidities such as cerebrovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, p-values<0.05). Survival analyses revealed age, male gender, shortness of breath, cerebrovascular disease, and COPD as mortality-associated factors. Survival time from symptom onset was significantly shorter in elderly versus young patients (median: 29 versus 62 days), males versus females (median: 46 versus 59 days), and patients with versus without comorbidities (mean: 41 versus 61 days). Mortality risk was higher in elderly males with comorbidities than in young females without comorbidities (p-value<0.01). Elderly male survivors with comorbidities also had longer hospital stays than other survivors (25 versus 18.5 days, p-value<0.01). Overall, the high mortality risk in elderly males with COVID-19-associated comorbidities supports early prevention and critical care for elderly populations.