Chemoresistance is a common limitation for successful treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Recently, virus infections have been demonstrated to be associated with tumorigenesis and chemoresistance in tumors. However, the role of infection-related genes in GBM haven’t been clearly demonstrated. Here, we explored the roles and mechanisms of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infections in tumorigenesis and chemoresistance in GBM. Four candidate genes, CDKN1A, MSX1, MYC and CHEK2, were identified to be the codifferentially expressed genes between three temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy datasets and one HTLV-1 infection gene set. Next, comprehensive bioinformatics data from several databases indicated that only CDKN1A was significantly upregulated in both GBM tissues and cells and showed the greatest prognostic value in GBM patients. Clinical data identified the correlations between CDKN1A expression and clinicopathological parameters of GBM patients. Moreover, CDKN1A was found to be involved in AKT-mediated TMZ resistance of glioma cells. In addition, KEGG analysis of CDKN1A-associated coexpression genes showed that CDKN1A was potentially involved in complement and coagulation cascades pathways in GBM. Finally, TISIDB database was used to investigate the role of CDKN1A in tumor-immune system interactions in GBM. These findings enhanced our understanding of the roles of CDKN1A in tumorigenesis and therapy response in GBM.