Serum concentration of apolipoprotein B (Apo B) is causally associated with arteriosclerosis cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. Whether ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) variants predict the risk of increased Apo B concentration (≥ 80 mg/dL) and related ASCVD remain less clear. We recruited 522 subjects with elevated Apo B concentration (≥ 80 mg/dL) and 522 counterpart subjects (< 80 mg/dL) from South China to assess the associations of KATP variants (rs11046182, rs78148713, rs145456027 and rs147265929) with the risks of increased Apo B serum concentration (≥ 80 mg/dL), carotid artery stenosis (CAS) ≥ 50% and new-onset ischemic stroke (IS). Our results showed that only KATP SNP rs11046182 (GG genotype) was associated with increased risk of Apo B ≥ 80 mg/dL (adjusted OR=2.17, P<0.001) and CAS ≥ 50% (adjusted OR=2.63, P=0.011). After median 50.6-months follow-up, subjects carrying GG genotype of rs11046182 were associated with higher risk of new-onset IS (adjusted HR=2.24, P=0.024). Further, the exosome-derived microRNAs (exo-miRs) expression profile was identified by next-generation sequencing. 41 exo-miRs were significantly differentially expressed under cross-talk status between high Apo B level (≥ 80 mg/dL) and KATP rs11046182. Our study demonstrated that KATP variant rs11046182 was associated with higher risks of elevated serum Apo B levels and its related ASCVD, and the possible mechanism was related to specific exo-miRs expression profile of KATP rs11046182.