This study aimed to identify effective targets for carcinogenesis of primary myelofibrosis (PMF), as well as to screen ideal lead compounds with potential inhibition effect on Janus kinase 2 to contribute to the medication design and development.

Gene expression profiles of GSE26049, GSE53482, GSE61629 were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed genes were identified, and functional enrichment analyses such as Gene Ontology, protein-protein interaction network etc., were performed step by step. Subsequently, highly-precise computational techniques were conducted to identify potential inhibitors of JAK2. A series of structural biology methods including virtual screening, ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) prediction, molecule docking, molecular dynamics simulation etc., were implemented to discover novel natural compounds. Results elucidated that PMF patients had abnormal LCN2, JAK2, MMP8, CAMP, DEFA4, LTF, MPO, HBD, STAT4, EBF1 mRNA expression compared to normal patients. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that these genes were mainly enriched in erythrocyte differentiation, neutrophil degranulation and killing cells of other organisms. Two novel natural compounds, ZINC000013513540 and ZINC000004099068 were found binding to JAK2 with favorable interaction energy together with high binding affinity. They were predicted with non-Ames mutagenicity, low-rodent carcinogenicity, less developmental toxicity potential as well as non-toxicity with liver. Molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated that these two complexes: ZINC000013513540-JAK2 and ZINC000004099068-JAK2 could exist stably under natural circumstances. In conclusion, this study revealed hub genes in the carcinogenesis of PMF. ZINC000013513540 and ZINC000004099068 were promising drugs in dealing with PMF. This study may also accelerate exploration of new drugs.