HDAC11, the sole member of HDAC class IV family, plays vital roles in activating mitosis and apoptosis of tumor cells, but its functions in meiosis are rarely investigated. In the present study, the effect of HDAC11 on meiosis during porcine oocytes maturation was fully studied. The results showed that HDAC11 inhibition by its specific inhibitor JB-3-22 dramatically decreased the porcine oocyte maturation rate by disturbing spindle organization and chromosomes alignment without affecting the cytoplasmic maturation. Further study indicated that HDAC11 inhibition significantly elevated the acetylation levels of α-tubulin and H4K16, which are crucial for spindle organization and chromosomes alignment. Moreover, immunofluorescence staining results showed that HDAC11 inhibition also disturbed other meiosis-related histone modifications, such as increased H3S10pho, H4K5ac and H4K12ac levels and reduced H3T3pho level. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis results indicated that HDAC11 inhibition disturbed porcine oocytes transcriptome (157 up-regulation, 106 down-regulation). In addition, HDAC11 inhibition compromised oocytes quality and subsequent development after parthenogenetic activation, which may be caused by the aberrant nuclear maturation and transcriptome expression profile during oocytes maturation. Therefore, our results elucidate the function of HDAC11 in porcine oocytes maturation and embryos development through regulating α-tubulin acetylation, meiosis-related histone modifications and transcriptome.