In this study, we using the in vivo destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) mouse model to investigate the role of bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5) in osteoarthritis (OA) progression mediated via chondrocyte senescence and apoptosis. BMP5 expression was significantly higher in knee articular cartilage tissues of OA patients and DMM model mice than the corresponding controls. The Osteoarthritis Research Society International scores based on histological staining of knee articular cartilage sections were lower in DMM mice where BMP5 was knocked down in chondrocytes than the corresponding controls 4 weeks after DMM surgery. DMM mice with BMP5-deficient chondrocytes showed reduced levels of matrix-degrading enzymes such as MMP13 and ADAMTS5 as well as reduced cartilage destruction. BMP5 knockdown also decreased chondrocyte apoptosis and senescence by suppressing the activation of p38 and ERK MAP kinases. These findings demonstrate that BMP5 silencing inhibits chondrocyte senescence and apoptosis as well as OA progression by downregulating activity in the p38/ERK signaling pathway.