Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of heart-associated deaths worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which microRNA-363-3p (miR-363-3p) regulates endothelial injury induced by inflammatory responses in CHD. The expression patterns of miR-363-3p, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and p38 MAPK/p-p38 MAPK were examined in an established atherosclerosis (AS) model in C57BL/6 mice and in isolated coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs) after gain- or loss-of-function experiments. We also measured the levels of inflammatory factors (IL-6, ICAM-1, IL-10 and IL-1β), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and catalase (CAT) activity, followed by detection of cell viability and apoptosis. In AS, miR-363-3p was downregulated and NOX4 was upregulated, while miR-363-3p was identified as targeting NOX4 and negatively regulating its expression. The AS progression was reduced in NOX4 knockout mice. Furthermore, miR-363-3p resulted in a decreased inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis in CAECs while augmenting their viability via blockade of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Overall, miR-363-3p hampers the NOX4-dependent p38 MAPK axis to attenuate apoptosis, oxidative stress injury, and the inflammatory reaction in CAECs, thus protecting CAECs against CHD. This finding suggests the miR-363-3p-dependent NOX4 p38 MAPK axis as a promising therapeutic target for CHD.