The present study assessed the body composition trajectory of rats (N = 96) placed into 5 groups according to lifespan, using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry every 6 months until end-of-life. A striking linearity between lifespan and bone mass percentage (not absolute bone mass) was observed. Long-lived rats show a higher bone mass percentage with a delayed insulin rise to a similar peak level as short-lived counterparts, followed by insulin declines and bone mass loss. Decreasing insulin after streptozotocin (STZ) injection caused a rapid bone mass loss (-10.5%) with a decreased 5-day survival rate to 35% in old rats (20 months). Insulin replacement to STZ-injected rats completely blocked bone mass loss and increased the survival rate to 71%. Normal old rats (20 months) had faster lean mass loss despite greater myofiber regeneration (centronucleation) compared with the young rats (4 months). Increased CD68+ and CD163+ cell infiltration into insulin-depleted muscle suggests a bone marrow cell exhaustion by aging muscle. Bone produces stem cells and phagocytes to continuously rejuvenate peripheral tissues. Our data suggests that aging and unsustainable life is associated with development of disproportionality between bone and the growing body size, partly due to insulin reversal from hyperinsulinemia during late life.