Herein we hypothesized that DPP10-AS1 could affect the development of colon cancer via the interaction with miR-127-3p and adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1). After sorting of CD133 positive cells, sphere formation, colony formation, proliferation, invasion, migration, and apoptosis were detected to explore the involvement of DPP10-AS1 and miR-127-3p in the colon cancer stem cell (CCSC) properties through gain- and loss-of function approaches. Furthermore, tumor xenograft in nude mice was conducted to investigate the effect of DPP10-AS1 and miR-127-3p on tumor growth in vivo. Poorly expressed DPP10-AS1 and ADCY1, while highly expressed miR-127-3p were found in CCSCs. Low expression of DPP10-AS1 was correlated with TNM stage, lymphatic node metastasis, and tumor differentiation. Upregulation of DPP10-AS1 increased ADCY1 protein expression, decreased the protein expression of CCSC-related factors, inhibited sphere formation, colony formation, proliferation, invasion and migration, and accelerated apoptosis of HT-29 and SW480 cells by suppressing the expression of miR-127-3p. Further, the above in vitro findings were also confirmed by in vivo assays. Taken together, this study demonstrates that DPP10-AS1 inhibits CCSC proliferation by regulating miR-127-3p and ADCY1, providing fresh insight into a promising novel treatment strategy for colon cancer.