Ameliorating hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are major therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have indicated that photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) attenuates metabolic abnormalities in insulin-resistant adipose cells and tissues. However, it remains unclear whether PBMT ameliorates glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes models. Here we showed that PBMT reduced blood glucose and insulin resistance, and reversed metabolic abnormalities in skeletal muscle in two diabetic mouse models. PBMT accelerated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by elevating cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) activity. ROS-induced activation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/ protein kinase B (AKT) signaling after PBMT promoted glucose transporter GLUT4 translocation and glycogen synthase (GS) activation, accelerating glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle. CcO subunit III deficiency, ROS elimination, and AKT inhibition suppressed the PBMT effects of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. This study indicated amelioration of glucose metabolism after PBMT in diabetic mouse models and revealed the metabolic regulatory effects and mechanisms of PBMT on skeletal muscle.