Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA) has been widely used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it remains unclear about the underlying biological mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis and mesalazine treatment, which could be partially clarified by exploring the profiling of circular RNAs (circRNAs) using RNA-seq. A total of 15 mice (C57BL/6) were randomly assigned to three equally sized groups: control, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, using DSS to induce IBD), and DSS+5-ASA (using mesalazine to treat IBD). We randomly selected three mice of each group to collect colon tissues for RNA-seq and then performed bioinformatic analysis for two comparisons: DSS vs. control and DSS+5-ASA vs. DSS. Comparisons of a series of indicators (e.g., body weight) verified the establishment of DSS-induced IBD mouse model and the effectiveness of mesalazine in treating IBD. We identified 182 differentially expressed circRNAs, including 55 up-regulated and 47 down-regulated circRNAs when comparing the DSS+5-ASA with the DSS group. These 102 circRNA-associated genes were significantly involved in the N-Glycan biosynthesis and lysine degradation. The network analysis of circRNA-miRNA-mRNAs identified an important pathway, i.e., chr10:115386962-115390436+/mmu-miR-6914-5p/Atg7, which is related to autophagy. The findings provide new insights into the biological mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis and mesalazine treatment, particularly highlighting the circRNA-miRNA-mRNA pathway.