Excessive fructose (Fru) intake has become an increased risk for chronic kidney disease progression. Despite extensive researches that have been performed to develop effective treatments against Fru-induced renal injury, the outcome has achieved limited success. In this study, we attempted to explore whether carminic acid (CA) could influence the progression of Fru-induced kidney injury, and the underlying molecular mechanism. At first, our in vitro results showed that CA significantly reduced inflammation in mouse tubular epithelial cells and human tubule epithelial cells stimulated by Fru. The anti-inflammatory effects of CA were associated with the blockage of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling. In addition, Fru-exposed cells showed higher oxidative stress, which was effectively restrained by CA treatment through improving nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf-2) nuclear translocation. Importantly, we found that Fru-induced inflammation and oxidative stress were accelerated in cells with Nrf-2 knockdown. What’s more, in Fru-stimulated cells, CA-alleviated inflammatory response and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were evidently abolished by Nrf-2 knockdown. The in vivo analysis demonstrated that Fru led to metabolic disorder, excessive albuminuria and histologic changes in renal tissues, which were effectively reversed by CA supplementation. We confirmed that CA significantly reduced inflammation and oxidative stress in the kidneys of mice through regulating NF-κB and Nrf-2 signaling pathways, eventually alleviating the progression of chronic kidney injury. Taken together, these results identified CA as a potential therapeutic strategy for metabolic stress-induced renal injury through restraining inflammation and oxidative stress via the improvement of Nrf-2 signaling.