Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 7 pp 10468—10489

Global, regional, and national burdens of leukemia from 1990 to 2017: a systematic analysis of the global burden of disease 2017 study

Xiangjie Lin1,2,3, , Jinghan Wang1,2,3, , Xin Huang1,2,3, , Huafeng Wang1,2,3, , Fenglin Li1,2,3, , Wenle Ye1,2,3, , Shujuan Huang4, , Jiajia Pan1,2,3, , Qing Ling1,2,3, , Wenwen Wei1,2,3, , Shihui Mao1,2,3, , Yu Qian1,2,3, , Jie Jin1,2,3,5, , Jiansong Huang1,2,3, ,

  • 1 Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
  • 2 Key Laboratory of Hematologic Malignancies, Diagnosis and Treatment, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
  • 3 Institute of Hematology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
  • 4 Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China
  • 5 Zhejiang University Cancer Center, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

Received: August 2, 2020       Accepted: February 23, 2021       Published: April 4, 2021
How to Cite

Copyright: © 2021 Lin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


We described the spatial and temporal trends of the annual leukemia incidence, prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from 1990 to 2017. Leukemia case numbers and age-standardized rates (ASRs) were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2017. The estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) in the ASR was calculated using a generalized linear model with a Gaussian distribution. The risk factors for death and DALYs due to leukemia were estimated within the comparative risk assessment framework of the GBD study. Globally, the prevalence, age-standardized prevalence rate (ASPR), and EAPC in leukemia cases in 2017 were 2.43 (95% uncertainty interval (UI) 2.19 to 2.59) million, 32.26 (95% UI 29.02 to 34.61), and 0.22% (95% CI 0.13 to 0.31, P<0.01), respectively, during 1990-2017. The trends of the age-standardized incidence, deaths, and DALY rate all significantly decreased globally. The burden of leukemia was higher in males than in female. An increasing leukemia burden was found in high-middle-sociodemographic index (SDI) countries and territories. The burden of leukemia tended to be lower in high-SDI regions than that in lower SDI regions. The rapid increases in the prevalent cases and prevalence rate of leukemia is urgent to be solved in the future.


ALL: Acute lymphocytic leukemia; AML: Acute myeloid leukemia; ASDR: Age standardized death rate; ASIR: Age standardized incident rate; ASPR: Age standardized prevalent rate; ASR: Age standardized rate; CLL: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia; CML: Chronic myeloid leukemia; CODEm: Cause of Death Ensemble model; DALYs: Disability-adjusted life years; EAPC: Estimated annual percentage change; EDU15+: educational attainment in the population older than 15 years; GBD: Global Burden of Disease; GHDx: Global Health Data Exchange; ICD-10: International Classification of Disease and Injuries-10; IHME: Institute of Health Metrics and Evalutation; SDI: Socio-demographic index; SEER: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; TFU25: Total fertility rate under 25 years; YLDs: years lived with disability.