We investigated the function of microRNA (miR)-532-5p in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CI/RI) and the underlying mechanisms using oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R)-treated SH-SY5Y cells and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model rats. MiR-532-5p levels were significantly downregulated in OGD/R-treated SH-SY5Y cells and the brain tissues of MCAO model rats. MiR-532-5p overexpression significantly reduced apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inflammation in the OGD/R-induced SH-SY5Y cells. Bioinformatics analysis using the targetscan and miRDB databases as well as dual luciferase reporter assays confirmed that miR-532-5p directly binds to the 3’UTR of C-X-C Motif Ligand 1 (CXCL1). Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) analysis showed that miR-532-5p expression was reduced in OGD/R-treated SH-SY5Y cells because of miR-532-5p promoter hypermethylation. Moreover, 5-azacytidine, a methylation inhibitor, restored miR-532-5p expression in OGD/R-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Brain tissues of MCAO model rats showed significantly increased cerebral infarction areas, cerebral water, neuronal apoptosis, and activated CXCL1/CXCR2/NF-κB signaling, but these effects were alleviated by intraventricular injection of miR-532-5p agomir. These findings demonstrate that miR-532-5p overexpression significantly reduces in vitro and in vivo CI/RI by targeting CXCL1. Thus, miR-532-5p is a potential therapeutic target for patients with CI/RI.