Tuberculosis (TB) is a common infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), and macrophages serve as the primary natural host of M.tb. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-derived exosomes play an essential role in inflammatory responses. This study aimed to determine the role of exosomes derived from M.tb-infected MSCs (Exo-MSCs-M.tb) on macrophages in vitro and in vivo and the underlying mechanisms. Here, we demonstrated that M.tb infection promoted the production of Exo-MSCs-M.tb, but did not influence MSCs proliferation. Exo-MSCs-M.tb were taken up by macrophages and then induced the pro-inflammatory response of macrophages through elevating the production of TNF-α, RANTES, and iNOS. Also, pro-inflammatory response induced by Exo-MSCs-M.tb displayed a time-dependent pattern in macrophages, in which the highest level of inflammatory response was observed at 72 hours post-infection of MSCs. In addition, the effect of Exo-MSCs-M.tb was mediated through TLR2/4 and MyD88 signaling pathways. Furthermore, Exo-MSCs-M.tb could induce the pro-inflammatory response in mice in vivo, and exosomes isolated from Exo-MSCs-M.tb-treated mice could also promote the pro-inflammatory response. Taken together, these results indicate that Exo-MSCs-M.tb induced the pro-inflammatory response of macrophages through TLRs signaling. This study provides new insight into the potential of MSCs-derived exosomes for the treatment of TB.