Review Volume 13, Issue 8 pp 12258—12272
Growth differentiation factor 11: a “rejuvenation factor” involved in regulation of age-related diseases?
- 1 Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, China
- 2 Department of Clinical Research Center, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, China
- 3 Department of Pathology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, China
Received: December 8, 2020 Accepted: March 14, 2021 Published: April 22, 2021https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.202881
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2021 Ma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily of cytokines, is a critical rejuvenation factor in aging cells. GDF11 improves neurodegenerative and neurovascular disease outcomes, increases skeletal muscle volume, and enhances muscle strength. Its wide-ranging biological effects may include the reversal of senescence in clinical applications, as well as the ability to reverse age-related pathological changes and regulate organ regeneration after injury. Nevertheless, recent data have led to controversy regarding the functional roles of GDF11, because the underlying mechanisms were not clearly established in previous studies. In this review, we examine the literature regarding GDF11 in age-related diseases and discuss potential mechanisms underlying the effects of GDF11 in regulation of age-related diseases.