The relationship between oxidative stress (OS) and cellular senescence (CS) is an important research topic because of the rapidly aging global population. Melatonin (MT) is associated with aging and plays a pivotal role in redox homeostasis, but its role in maintaining physiological stability in the brain (especially in OS-induced senescence) remains elusive. Here, we systematically reviewed the differential role of MT on OS-induced senescence in the SAMP8 mouse model. Major electronic databases were searched for relevant studies. Pooled mean differences (MDs)/standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the effect size. Overall, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. MT treatment was associated with the reduction of lipid peroxidation (SMD = −2.00, 95% CI [−2.91, −1.10]; p < 0.0001) and carbonylated protein (MD = −5.74, 95% CI [−11.03, –0.44]; p = 0.03), and with enhancement of the reduced-glutathione/oxidized-glutathione ratio (MD = 1.12, 95% CI [0.77, 1.47]; p < 0.00001). No differences were found in catalase and superoxide dismutase activities between MT-treated and vehicle-treated groups. Furthermore, nuclear-factor-κB, cyclin-dependent kinase-5, and p53 were regulated by MT administration. MT may improve physiological stability during aging by regulating interactions in brain senescence, but acts differentially on the antioxidant system.