Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 8 pp 12099—12112
Development of a prognostic index and screening of prognosis related genes based on an immunogenomic landscape analysis of bladder cancer
- 1 Department of Urology, Zhuzhou Central Hospital, Zhuzhou 412007, China
- 2 Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361003, China
Received: January 19, 2021 Accepted: March 23, 2021 Published: April 22, 2021https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.202917
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2021 Qu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Bladder cancer (BLCA) is one of the most common urinary tract malignant tumors. It is associated with poor outcomes, and its etiology and pathogenesis are not fully understood. There is great hope for immunotherapy in treating many malignant tumors; therefore, it is worthwhile to explore the use of immunotherapy for BLCA.Methods: Gene expression profiles and clinical information were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and immune-related genes (IRGs) were downloaded from the Immunology Database and Analysis Portal. Differentially-expressed and survival-associated IRGs in patients with BLCA were identified using computational algorithms and Cox regression analysis. We also performed functional enrichment analysis. Based on IRGs, we employed multivariate Cox analysis to develop a new prognostic index.Results: We identified 261 IRGs that were differentially expressed between BLCA tissue and adjacent tissue, 30 of which were significantly associated with the overall survival (all P<0.01). According to multivariate Cox analysis, nine survival-related IRGs (MMP9, PDGFRA, AHNAK, OAS1, OLR1, RAC3, IGF1, PGF, and SH3BP2) were high-risk genes. We developed a prognostic index based on these IRGs and found it accurately predicted BLCA outcomes associated with the TNM stage. Intriguingly, the IRG-based prognostic index reflected infiltration of macrophages.Conclusions: An independent IRG-based prognostic index provides a practical approach for assessing patients' immune status and prognosis with BLCA. This index independently predicted outcomes of BLCA.