Long non-coding RNAs are key regulators of tumor development and progression, with the potential to be biomarkers of tumors. This study aimed to explore the role of PlncRNA-1 in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa). We found that PlncRNA-1 was up-regulated in 85.29% of PCa tissues and could predict the T stage of PCa patients to a certain extent. Results showed that inhibition of PlncRNA-1 expression potentially promoted cell apoptosis, suppressed the proliferation, migration, and invasion of cells, and triggered G2/M cycle arrest in vitro and in vivo. PlncRNA-1 was mainly localized in the nucleus and PlncRNA-1 expression and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) expression were negatively correlated. Mechanistically, knockdown of PlncRNA-1 increased expression levels of PTEN protein and phosphorylated PTEN protein, and decreased expression levels of Akt protein and phosphorylated Akt protein. Rescue experiments demonstrated that PTEN inhibitors abolished the changes in PTEN/Akt pathway caused by PlncRNA-1 interference. PlncRNA-1 can promote the occurrence and development of PCa via the PTEN/Akt pathway. PlncRNA-1 may, therefore, be a new candidate target for the treatment of PCa.