This study aimed to investigate the role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) in the development of ALF. We collected blood samples from patients with acute liver failure (ALF) and established an ALF mouse model induced by D-galactosamine/Lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS) for in vivo studies. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) induced with LPS were isolated for in vitro experiments. Survival tests, histological analysis, and biochemical indicator assays were conducted. Luciferase assay was performed to determine the binding affinity between microRNA-139 (miR-139) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA). Expression of lncRNA NEAT1, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), and PUMA was upregulated, while the expression of miR-139 was downregulated in clinical samples and D-GalN/LPS induced ALF mouse model. LncRNA NEAT1 promoted the enrichment of H3K27me3 on the promoter region of miR-139 via EZH2, which led to suppression of miR-139. The inhibition of miR-139 resulted in the upregulation of its downstream target PUMA. The NEAT1/miR-139/PUMA pathway upregulated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β, thereby mediating the progression of ALF. In conclusion, silencing lncRNA NEAT1 upregulated the expression of miR-139 through EZH2, leading to the downregulation of PUMA, which alleviated the development of ALF.