Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 8 pp 12160—12178
Balasubramide derivative 3C attenuates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice: role of AMPK-STAT1-STING signaling pathway
- 1 State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Pharmacology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu, China
- 2 Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu, China
- 3 Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China
- 4 College of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, China
Received: May 3, 2020 Accepted: November 30, 2020 Published: April 26, 2021https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.202929
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2021 Cai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
We previously reported the neuroprotective effects of (+)-balasubramide derived compound 3C, but its action on atherosclerosis in vivo remains unknown. The study was designed to investigate the potential effects of 3C on atherogenesis and explore the possible underlying mechanisms. 3C ameliorated high-fat diet-induced body weight gain, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerotic plaque burden in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice after 10 weeks of treatment. 3C suppressed the expression of genes involved in triglyceride synthesis in liver. 3C prevented aortic inflammation as evidenced by reduction of adhesive molecule levels and macrophage infiltration. Mechanistic studies revealed that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is central to the athero-protective effects of 3C. Increased AMPK activity by 3C resulted in suppressing interferon-γ (IFN-γ) induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) and stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling pathways and downstream pro-inflammatory markers. Moreover, 3C inhibited ox-LDL triggered lipid accumulation and IFN-γ induced phenotypic switch toward M1 macrophage in RAW 264.7 cells. Our present data suggest that 3C prevents atherosclerosis via pleiotropic effects, including amelioration of lipid profiles, vascular inflammation and macrophage pro-inflammatory phenotype. 3C has the potential to be developed as a promising drug for atherosclerosis and related cardiovascular disease.