The regulatory role of lncRNAs in the early stage post peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is not yet clear. In this study, next-generation sequencing was used to perform deep sequencing on normal sciatic nerves (control) and lesional tissues derived on the 4th (D4) and 7th days (D7) after sciatic nerve injury in rats. Time-point unique differentially expressed lncRNAs (DElncRNAs) were analyzed for functional enrichment. The results showed that 776 DElncRNAs were unique to D4, and their functions were mainly enriched in wound healing, phosphatase binding and MAPK signaling pathways; 317 DElncRNAs were unique to D7, and their functions were mainly enriched in ion transmembrane transporter channel activity; 579 DElncRNAs were shared by these two days, and their functions were mainly enriched in axongenesis, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and cell cycle. Furthermore, lncRNA-mRNA interaction networks were constructed in functions or pathways with a high enrichment rate. Finally, 3 mRNAs and 4 lncRNAs in the axongenesis interaction network were selected, and their expression levels were verified by RT-qPCR. This study preliminarily revealed the regulatory role of lncRNAs at different time points in the early stage post PNI, which provides potential targets for basic research and clinical treatment of PNI.