Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory loss, inability to carry out everyday daily life, and noticeable behavioral changes. The essential neuropathologic criteria for an AD diagnosis are extracellular β-amyloid deposition and intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau. However, the exact pathogenic mechanisms underlying AD remain elusive, and current treatment options show only limited success. New research indicates that the gut microbiota contributes to AD development and progression by accelerating neuroinflammation, promoting senile plaque formation, and modifying neurotransmitter production. This review highlights laboratory and clinical evidence for the pathogenic role of gut dysbiosis on AD and provides potential cues for improved AD diagnostic criteria and therapeutic interventions based on the gut microbiota.