This study investigated functional alterations in the cerebral network of patients with hypertensive retinopathy (HR) by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and degree centrality (DC) methods. 31 patients with HR along with 31 healthy controls (HC) closely matched in gender and age were enrolled for the research. All participants were examined by rs-fMRI, and the DC method was applied to evaluate alterations in spontaneous cerebral activity between the 2 groups. We used the independent samples t test to evaluate demographic and general information differences between HR patients and HCs. The 2-sample t test was used to compare the DC values of different cerebral regions between the 2 groups. The accuracy of differential diagnostic HR was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve method for rs-fMRI DC values changes. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was applied to determine the correlation between differences in DC in specific cerebral areas and clinical manifestation. Results showed that DC values were higher in the left cerebellum posterior lobe (LCPL), left medial occipital gyrus (LMOG), and bilateral precuneus (BP) of HR patients compared to HCs. Mean DC values were lower in the right medial frontal gyrus/bilateral anterior cingulate cortex of HR patients. Anxiety and depression scores were positively correlated with DC values of LMOG and LCPL, respectively. Bilateral best-corrected visual acuity in HR patients was negatively correlated with the DC value of BP. Hence, changes in DC in specific cerebral areas of patients with HR reflect functional alterations that provide insight into the pathophysiologic mechanisms of HR.