Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common type of dementia worldwide. Although there are five FDA-approved drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), none of them have been applied to treat VaD. Adalimumab is a TNF-α inhibitor that is used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. In a recent retrospective case-control study, the application of adalimumab for rheumatoid or psoriasis was shown to decrease the risk of AD. However, whether adalimumab can be used for the treatment of VaD is not clear. In this study, we used 2VO surgery to generate a VaD rat model and treated the rats with adalimumab or vehicle. We demonstrated that VaD rats treated with adalimumab exhibited significant improvements in memory. In addition, adalimumab treatment significantly alleviated neuronal loss in the hippocampi of VaD rats. Moreover, adalimumab significantly reduced microglial activation and reversed M1/M2 polarization in VaD rats. Furthermore, adalimumab treatment suppressed the activity of NF-κB, an important neuroinflammatory transcription factor. Finally, adalimumab displayed a protective role against oxidative stress in VaD rats. Our results indicate that adalimumab may be applied for the treatment of human patients with VaD.