Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is a common head and neck cancer with a high metastasis and poor prognosis. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a type of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) with regulatory function and broadly participate in cancer development. However, the correlation of circular RNA ABCB10 (circABCB10) with LSCC remains unclear. Here, we were interested in the role of circABCB10 in the modulation of LSCC progression. Our data demonstrated that the depletion of circABCB10 significantly inhibited the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of LSCC cells. Meanwhile, circABCB10 knockdown was able to remarkably reduce the invasion and migration of LSCC cells. Mechanically, circABCB10 served as a sponge for microRNAs-588 (miR-588) and miR-588 could target and down-regulated chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) expression in LSCC cells. The overexpression of CXCR4 or miR-588 inhibitor could reverse circABCB10 depletion-attenuated malignant phenotypes of LSCC cells. Functionally, the depletion of circABCB10 alleviated the tumor growth of LSCC cells in the tumorigenicity analysis of nude mice. The CXCR4 expression was decreased while the miR-588 expression was enhanced by circABCB10 depletion in vivo. Thus, we concluded that circABCB10 was involved in the malignant progression of LSCC by regulating miR-588/CXCR4 axis. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of circRHOT1 contributing to the development of LSCC. CircABCB10 and miR-588 may be used as potential targets for the treatment of LSCC.