Review Volume 13, Issue 10 pp 14522—14543
Effects of exercise on cellular and tissue aging
- 1 Beta Cell Aging Lab, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA 02115, USA
Received: January 30, 2021 Accepted: May 3, 2021 Published: May 13, 2021https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.203051
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Copyright: © 2021 Carapeto and Aguayo-Mazzucato. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The natural aging process is carried out by a progressive loss of homeostasis leading to a functional decline in cells and tissues. The accumulation of these changes stem from a multifactorial process on which both external (environmental and social) and internal (genetic and biological) risk factors contribute to the development of adult chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Strategies that can slow cellular aging include changes in diet, lifestyle and drugs that modulate intracellular signaling. Exercise is a promising lifestyle intervention that has shown antiaging effects by extending lifespan and healthspan through decreasing the nine hallmarks of aging and age-associated inflammation. Herein, we review the effects of exercise to attenuate aging from a clinical to a cellular level, listing its effects upon various tissues and systems as well as its capacity to reverse many of the hallmarks of aging. Additionally, we suggest AMPK as a central regulator of the cellular effects of exercise due to its integrative effects in different tissues. These concepts are especially relevant in the setting of T2D, where cellular aging is accelerated and exercise can counteract these effects through the reviewed antiaging mechanisms.