We investigated the role of microRNA (miR)-485 and its downstream signaling molecules on mediating epilepsy in cellular and rat models. We established a cellular epilepsy model by exposing hippocampal neurons to magnesium and a rat model by treating ICR mice with lithium chloride (127 mg/kg) and pilocarpine (30 mg/kg). We confirmed that miR-485 could bind and inhibit histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) and then measured expression of miR-485 and in mice and cells. Cells were transfected with overexpression or knockdown of miR-485, HDAC5, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF1α), or 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 enzyme (PFKFB3) to verify their roles in apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in epileptic hippocampal neurons. Binding relationship between miR-485, HDAC5, HIF1α, and PFKFB3 was verified. Oxidative stress and inflammation marker levels in epilepsy model mice were assessed. miR-485 was downregulated and HDAC5 was upregulated in cell and animal model of epilepsy. Seizure, neuronal apoptosis, oxidative stress (increased SOD and GSH-Px expression and decreased MDA and 8-OHdG expression) and inflammation (reduced IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 expression) were reduced by miR-485 in epileptic cells. HIF1α and PFKFB3 expression was reduced by HDAC5 knockdown in cells, which was recapitulated in vivo. Thus, miR-485 alleviates neuronal damage and epilepsy by inhibiting HDAC5, HIF1α, and PFKFB3.