Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 11 pp 15433—15443

Galectin-3/adiponectin as a new biological indicator for assessing the risk of type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study in a community population

Diaozhu Lin1, *, , Xiaosi Hong1, *, , Kan Sun1, , Xiaoyun Zhang1, , Hong Lian1, , Jiahuan Wang1, , Na Mao1, , Xiuwei Zhang2, , Meng Ren1, , Li Yan1, , Feng Li1, , Lili You1, ,

  • 1 Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120, People’s Republic of China
  • 2 Department of Endocrinology, Dongguan People's Hospital, Dongguan 523000, People’s Republic of China
* Equal contribution

Received: October 19, 2020       Accepted: March 13, 2021       Published: June 7, 2021
How to Cite

Copyright: © 2021 Lin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Objective: This study aimed to explore the association between the risk of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and galectin-3 and adiponectin and to investigate whether their joint action shows a favorable diabetes assessment performance.

Methods: We conducted a community-based study in 135 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes and 270 age- and sex-matched nondiabetic patients. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were determined using logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curve, decision curve analysis and calibration plot were used to explore their efficacy and clinical utility for models.

Results: High quartiles of galectin-3/adiponectin (quartile 4 vs 1: OR 2.43 [95% CIs: 1.21–5.00]) showed the strongest correlation with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in the total population, which was consistent in the older population (age≥50 years old) in adjustment models. The combination + lipids + galectin-3/adiponectin model (AUC = 0.72 [95% CIs: 0.66-0.77]) displayed better diabetes assessment performance than the other two models.

Conclusions: High galectin-3 and low adiponectin levels were associated with the high risk of diabetes, and their joint action was a superior promising factor for evaluating diabetes risk. The diabetes discriminative strength of galectin-3/adiponectin was better in the older population than the younger.


BMI: body mass index; WC: waist circumference; HC: hip circumference; WHR: waist-hip ratio; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; TC: total cholesterol; TG: triglycerides; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; FPG: fasting plasma glucose; HbA1c: glycosylated hemoglobin; HMW adiponectin: high-molecular weight adiponectin; HOMA: homeostasis model assessment; OR: odds ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval; ROC: receiver operating characteristic; DCA: decision curve analysis; AUC: area under curve; NRI: net reclassification improvement; IDI: integrated discrimination improvement.