Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 11 pp 15459—15478

S100A gene family: immune-related prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for low-grade glioma

Yu Zhang1, *, , Xin Yang1, *, , Xiao-Lin Zhu1, *, , Hao Bai1, , Zhuang-Zhuang Wang1, , Jun-Jie Zhang1, , Chun-Yan Hao2, &, , Hu-Bin Duan1,3, ,

  • 1 Department of Neurosurgery, First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi, P.R. China
  • 2 Department of Geriatrics, First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi, P.R. China
  • 3 Department of Neurosurgery, Lvliang People's Hospital, Lvliang 033000, Shanxi, P.R. China
* Equal contribution

Received: December 21, 2020       Accepted: May 13, 2021       Published: June 8, 2021
How to Cite

Copyright: © 2021 Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Background: Despite the better prognosis given by surgical resection and chemotherapy in low-grade glioma (LGG), progressive transformation is still a huge concern. In this case, the S100A gene family, being capable of regulating inflammatory responses, can promote tumor development.

Methods: The analysis was carried out via ONCOMINE, GEPIA, cBioPortal, String, GeneMANIA, WebGestalt, LinkedOmics, TIMER, CGGA, R 4.0.2 and immunohistochemistry.

Results: S100A2, S100A6, S100A10, S100A11, and S100A16 were up-regulated and S100A1 and S100A13 were down-regulated in LGG compared to normal tissues. S100A3, S100A4, S100A8, and S100A9 expression was up-regulated during the progression of glioma grade. In addition, genetic variation of the S100A family was high in LGG, and the S100A family genes mostly function through IL-17 signaling pathway, S100 binding protein, and inflammatory responses. The TIMER database also revealed a relationship between gene expression and immune cell infiltration. High expression of S100A2, S100A3, S100A4, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, S100A13, and S100A16 was significantly associated with poor prognosis in LGG patients. S100A family genes S100A2, S100A3, S100A6, S100A10, and S100A11 may be prognosis-related genes in LGG, and were significantly associated with IDH mutation and 1p19q codeletion. The immunohistochemical staining results also confirmed that S100A2, S100A3, S100A6, S100A10, and S100A11 expression was upregulated in LGG.

Conclusion: The S100A family plays a vital role in LGG pathogenesis, presumably facilitating LGG progression via modulating inflammatory state and immune cell infiltration.


LGG: low-grade glioma; GO: gene ontology; KEGG: kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes; PPI: protein-protein interaction.