This study aimed to investigate whether free fatty acids (FFAs) could induce the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), as well as the mechanism of FFAs-induced NETs in acute lung injury (ALI). FFAs were used to induce NETs production. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected after FFA and NADPH oxidase inhibitor treatments. The association between FFAs-induced NETs and the activation of p38, ERK, and JNK pathways was investigated. The effect of FFAs-induced NETs on the dendritic cells (DCs) activation and T cell differentiation was investigated. FFAs could induce neutrophils to produce NETs. FFAs significantly promoted ROS production and increased the expression of ERK, p38 and JNK, and treatment of the inhibitors of NAPDH oxidase (DPI), p38 (SB202190), ERK1/2 (U0126) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited FAAs-induced NETs production. FFAs induced NETs could promote DCs activation and consequently led to the differentiation of primary CD4+ T cells into Th1 and Th17 cells and the release of IL-1β, IL-12 and TNF-α. FFAs are capable of inducing NETs via NOX, ERK, p38 and JNK pathways. FFA-induced NETs further lead to DCs activation and T cell differentiation, which can well explain the mechanism of ALI caused by FFAs.