Research Paper Volume 14, Issue 1 pp 462—476
Atorvastatin suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome activation in intracerebral hemorrhage via TLR4- and MyD88-dependent pathways
- 1 Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, PR China
- 2 Department of Pathophysiology, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyang 110034, PR China
Received: August 30, 2021 Accepted: October 28, 2021 Published: January 11, 2022https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.203824
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2022 Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common neurological condition that causes severe disability and even death. Even though the mechanism is not clear, increasing evidence shows the efficacy of atorvastatin on treating ICH. In this study, we examined the impact of atorvastatin on the NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and inflammatory pathways following ICH. Mouse models of ICH were established by collagenase injection in adult C57BL/6 mice. IHC mice received atorvastatin treatment 2 h after hematoma establishment. First, the changes of glial cells and neurons in the brains of ICH patients and mice were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Second, the molecular mechanisms underlying the microglial activation and neuronal loss were evaluated after the application of atorvastatin. Finally, the behavioral deficits of ICH mice without or with the treatment of atorvastatin were determined by neurological defect scores. The results demonstrated that atorvastatin significantly deactivated glial cells by reducing the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 in ICH model mice. For inflammasomes, atorvastatin also showed its efficacy by decreasing the expression of NLRP3, cleaved caspase-1, and IL-1β in ICH mice. Moreover, atorvastatin markedly inhibited the upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), which indicated deactivation of NLRP3 inflammasomes. By inhibiting the activities of inflammasomes in glial cells, neuronal loss was partially prevented by suppressing the apoptosis in the brains of ICH mice, protecting them from neurological defects.