αKlotho is a transmembrane protein acting as a co-receptor for FGF23, a bone hormone regulating renal phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. αKlotho expression is controlled by PPARγ. Soluble αklotho (sKL) regulates cellular signaling impacting stress resistance and death. αKlotho deficiency causes early onset of aging-associated diseases while its overexpression markedly increases lifespan. Cellular stress due to cytotoxic therapeutics or apoptosis induction through caspase activation or serum deficiency may result in cell death. Owing to αklotho’s role in cellular stress and aging, this study explored the effect of cytotoxic agents or apoptosis stimulants on cellular αklotho expression. Experiments were performed in renal MDCK, NRK-52E and HK-2 cells. Gene expression was determined by qRT-PCR, sKL by ELISA, apoptosis and necrosis by annexin V binding and a fluorescent DNA dye, and cell viability by MTT assay. Cytostatic drugs cisplatin, paclitaxel, and doxorubicin as well as apoptosis induction with caspase 3 activator PAC-1 and serum deprivation induced αklotho and PPARG gene expression while decreasing viability and proliferation and inducing apoptosis of MDCK and NRK-52E cells to a variable extent. PPARγ antagonism attenuated up-regulation of αklotho in MDCK cells. In HK-2 cells, αklotho gene expression and sKL protein were down-regulated by chemotherapeutics. SKL serum levels in patients following chemotherapy were not significantly changed. In summary, potentially fatal stress results in up-regulation of αKlotho gene expression in MDCK and NRK-52E cells and down-regulation in HK-2 cells. These results indicate that different renal cell lines may exhibit completely different regulation of αklotho.