The most important risk factor for the development of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is ageing. Senescence accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) is a model of sporadic AD, with senescence accelerated resistant mouse (SAMR1) as a control. In this study, we aimed to determine the onset of senescence-induced neurodegeneration and the related potential therapeutic window using behavioral experiments, immunohistochemistry and western blotting in SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice at 3, 6 and 9 months of age. The Y-maze revealed significantly impaired working spatial memory of SAMP8 mice from the 6th month. With ageing, increasing plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in SAMP8 mice were detected as well as significantly increased astrocytosis in the cortex and microgliosis in the brainstem. Moreover, from the 3rd month, SAMP8 mice displayed a decreased number of neurons and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. From the 6th month, increased pathological phosphorylation of tau protein at Thr231 and Ser214 was observed in the hippocampi of SAMP8 mice. In conclusion, changes specific for neurodegenerative processes were observed between the 3rd and 6th month of age in SAMP8 mice; thus, potential neuroprotective interventions could be applied between these ages.