The mitokine MOTS-c is a mitochondrially-encoded “exercise-mimetic peptide” expressed in multiple tissues, particularly skeletal muscles, which can be detected as a circulating hormone in the blood. MOTS-c mechanisms of action (MoA) involve insulin sensitization, enhanced glucose utilization, suppression of mitochondrial respiration, and targeting of the folate-AICAR-AMPK pathway. Although MOTS-c MoA largely overlap those of the anti-diabetic biguanide metformin, the putative regulatory actions of metformin on MOTS-c have not yet been evaluated in detail. Here, we measured circulating MOTS-c in paired baseline and post-treatment sera obtained from HER2-positive breast cancer patients randomized to receive either metformin combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and trastuzumab or an equivalent regimen without metformin. We failed to find any significant alteration of circulating MOTS-c –as measured using the commercially available competitive ELISA CEX132Hu– in response to 24 weeks of a neoadjuvant chemotherapy/trastuzumab regimen with or without daily metformin. Changes in circulating MOTS-c levels failed to reach statistical significance when comparing patients achieving pathological complete response (pCR), irrespective of metformin treatment. The inability of metformin to target skeletal muscle, the major tissue for MOTS-c production and secretion, might limit its regulatory effects on circulating MOTS-c. Further studies are needed to definitely elucidate the nature of the interaction between metformin and MOTS-c in cancer and non-cancer patients.