The direct cause of periodontitis is periodontopathic bacteria, while various environmental factors affect the severity of periodontitis. Previous epidemiological studies have shown positive correlations between aging and periodontitis. However, whether and how aging is linked to periodontal health and disease in biological processes is poorly understood. Aging induces pathological alterations in organs, which promotes systemic senescence associated with age-related disease. Recently, it has become evident that senescence at the cellular level, cellular senescence, is a cause of chronic diseases through production of various secretory factors including proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which is referred to the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). In this study, we examined the pathological roles of cellular senescence in periodontitis. We found localization of senescent cells in periodontal tissue, particularly the periodontal ligament (PDL), in aged mice. Senescent human PDL (HPDL) cells showed irreversible cell cycle arrest and SASP-like phenotypes in vitro. Additionally, we observed age-dependent upregulation of microRNA (miR)-34a in HPDL cells. These results suggest that chronic periodontitis is mediated by senescent PDL cells that exacerbate inflammation and destruction of periodontal tissues through production of SASP proteins. Thus, miR-34a and senescent PDL cells might be promising therapeutic targets for periodontitis in elderly people.