Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) causes irreversible joint damage, but the pathogenesis is unknown. Therefore, it is crucial to identify diagnostic biomarkers of RA metabolism-related genes (MRGs). This study obtained transcriptome data from healthy individuals (HC) and RA patients from the GEO database. Weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA), the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and random forest (RF) algorithms were adopted to identify the diagnostic feature biomarker for RA. In addition, biomarkers were verified by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. We established a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), which was confirmed by HE staining and bone structure micro-CT analysis, and then further verified the biomarkers by immunofluorescence. In vitro NMR analysis was used to analyze and identify possible metabolites. The correlation of diagnostic feature biomarkers and immune cells was performed using the Spearman-rank correlation algorithm. In this study, a total of 434 DE-MRGs were identified. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis indicated that the DE-MRGs were significantly enriched in small molecules, catabolic process, purine metabolism, carbon metabolism, and inositol phosphate metabolism. AKR1C3, MCEE, POLE4, and PFKM were identified through WGCNA, LASSO, and RF algorithms. The nomogram result should have a significant diagnostic capacity of four biomarkers in RA. Immune infiltration landscape analysis revealed a significant difference in immune cells between HC and RA groups. Our findings suggest that AKR1C3, MCEE, POLE4, and PFKM were identified as potential diagnostic feature biomarkers associated with RA’s immune cell infiltrations, providing a new perspective for future research and clinical management of RA.