Mounting evidence demonstrates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have critical roles in the initiation and progression of cancer. Here, we report that small nucleolar RNA host gene 3 (SNHG3) is a key regulator of breast cancer progression. We analyzed RNA sequencing data to explore abnormally expressed lncRNAs in breast cancer. The effects of SNHG3 on breast cancer were investigated via in vitro and in vivo assays (CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry assay, EdU assay, xenograft model, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot). The mechanism of SNHG3 action was explored through bioinformatics, RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization, luciferase reporter assay, RNA pull-down assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and RNA immunoprecipitation assay. We found that SNHG3 expression was upregulated in breast cancer tissues and that its high expression level was associated with poor survival. We also found that high SNHG3 expression was partly induced by STAT3. Moreover, SNHG3 knockdown significantly repressed breast cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. In the cytoplasm, SNHG3 facilitated the expression of Casein kinase II-A1 (CSNK2A1) by absorbing miR-485-5p and recruiting the HuR protein, participating in the malignant progression of breast cancer. Taken together, our study reveals a SNHG3-based regulatory network, which plays an oncogenic role in breast cancer and suggests that SNHG3 may serve as a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.