Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is a major type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease of the colonic mucosa and exhibits progressive morbidity. The incidence and prevalence of UC is increasing worldwide. The global burden of UC, which can substantially reduce quality of life, is clearly increasing. These data highlight the need for research into prevention of UC and innovations in health-care systems to manage this complex and costly disease. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a new antidiabetic drug, is used to treat Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Accumulating evidence suggests that GLP-1 has additional roles other than glucose-lowering effects. Despite the abundance of GLP-1 research, studies in UC have been less consistent, especially body weight; for example, body weight, colon length, colon injury score, intestinal microbiota, remain to be studied further. To date, the molecular mechanism of the protective effect of GLP-1 on UC remains obscure. The effect of GLP-1 was studied by using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitic mice and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated RAW264.7 cells (macrophage cell line) under in vivo and in vitro conditions, respectively. Our results indicate that GLP-1 significantly relieves ulcerative colitis as it represses the production of proinflammatory mediators. In addition, GLP-1 blocks the activation of the protein kinase B (AKT)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. GLP-1 also alleviates DSS-induced injury to the intestinal mucosa and dysbiosis of gut microbiota. Altogether, GLP-1 has protection effect on ulcerative colitis. Thus, GLP-1 can be considered as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of UC.