Homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) is a common molecular signature of genomic instability and has been shown to be a biomarker for targeted therapies. However, there is a lack of studies on the role of HRD changes in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) transcriptomics. HRD scores were determined using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data from LUAD patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Transcriptional data from patients with different scores were analyzed to identify biomarkers associated with HRD. Candidate biomarkers were validated using Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)-sourced datasets and an immunotherapy cohort. According to the bulk transcriptome and clinical characteristics of 912 LUAD patients and Single-cell RNA-seq of 9 LUAD patients from TCGA and GEO databases, we observed increased MS4A6A expression in HRD tumors; high MS4A6A expression predicted improved survival outcomes. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) revealed a positive correlation between MS4A6A expression and neoantigen loading and immune cell infiltration. Additionally, the immunotherapy cohort confirmed the possibility of using MS4A6A as a biomarker. Collectively, we suggest that MS4A6A is associated with HRD and provide a new perspective toward identifying promising biomarkers for immunotherapy.