Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the main pathological type of lung cancer. In this study, multi-omics analysis revealed a significant increase of pseudouridine synthase 1 (PUS1) in NSCLC and the high expression of PUS1 was associated with shorter OS (Overall Survival), PFS (Progression Free Survival), and PPS (Post Progression Survival) of NSCLC patients. Clinical subgroup analysis showed that PUS1 may be involved in the occurrence and development of NSCLC. Besides, TIMER, ESTIMATE, and IPS analysis suggested that PUS1 expression was associated with immune cell infiltration, and the expression of PUS1 was significantly negatively correlated with DC cell infiltration. GESA analysis also indicated PUS1 may involve in DNA_REPAIR, E2F_TARGETS, MYC_TARGETS_V2, G2M_CHECKPOINT and MYC_TARGETS_V1 pathways and triggered NSCLC malignancy through MCM5 or XPO1. Furthermore, PUS1 may be a potential target for NSCLC therapy.